Main Article Content
This study attempts to provide a strengthened understanding of how to mitigate perceived product risk by utilizing the effect of consumers’ trust transfer. Grounding on the theory of perceived risk, trust transfer framework, and social commerce theory, we propose an integrated model of trust-risk perspective on cross-border social commerce use. We tested the proposed model by conducting an online survey in Indonesia. In this work, we used a PLS-SEM analysis, a mediation and a suppression test, and a Multi-Group analysis. The results demonstrated that consumers’ trust can be transferred from the source of trust (platform and friend) to the target of trust (brand), which subsequently reduce perceived product as well as increase purchase intention. More interestingly, the results of the suppression effect testing show that friend trust was able to play a role as a suppressor factor in the relationship between brand trust and perceived product risk. The finding of the present study offers important implications for theory and literature by integrating trust transfer and perceived risk theory and taking into account perceived product risk as an important factor that potentially deters the effect of trust transfer on consumers’ intention to purchase. From a practical implication, we suggest that the best away to gain consumers’ trust in the global market is by conducting an intensive approach to prospective consumers through social media and promoting in popular marketplaces simultaneously.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Anon. 2009. “The Influence of Perceived Risk on Internet Shopping Behavior: A Multidimensional Perspective.” Journal of Risk Research 12(2):259–77.
Bagozzi, Richard and Youjae Yi. 1988. “On the Evaluation of Structure Equation Models Reshoring from a Demand-Side Perspective View Project.” Article in Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.
Barclay, D., C. Higgins, and R. Thompson. 1995. “The Partial Least Squares (PLS) Approach to Casual Modeling: Personal Computer Adoption Ans Use as an Illustration.” Technology Studies 2(2):285–309.
Bearden, WO and RG Netemeyer. 1989. “Measurement of Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence.” Journal of Consumer 15(1):473–81.
Becerra, Enrique P. and Pradeep K. Korgaonkar. 2011. “Effects of Trust Beliefs on Consumers’ Online Intentions.” European Journal of Marketing 45(6):936–62.
Bhatnagar, Amit and Sanjog Misra. 2000. “On Risk, Convenience, and Internet Shopping Behavior.” Communications of the ACM 43(11):98–105.
Bhatnagar, Amit, Sanjog Misra, and H. Raghav Rao. 2000. “Bhatnagar2000.” 43(11).
Borchers, Andrew. 2001. “Trust in Internet Shopping: A Test of a Measurement Instrument.” AMCIS 2001 Proceedings 799–803.
Burnkrant, Robert E. and Alain Cousineau. 1975. “Informational and Normative Social Influence in Buyer Behavior.” Journal of Consumer 2(3):1975.
Büttner, Oliver B. and Anja S. Göritz. n.d. “Perceived Trustworthiness of Online Shops.”
Buttner, Oliver and Anja S. Goritz. 2008. “Perceived Trustworthiness of Online Shops.” Journal of Consumer Behaviour 7(1):35–50.
Cai, Hongbin, Yuyu Chen, and Hanming Fang. 2009. “Observational Learning: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Field Experiment.” American Economic Review 99(3):864–82.
Chang, Hsin Hsin and Su Wen Chen. 2008. The Impact of Online Store Environment Cues on Purchase Intention: Trust and Perceived Risk as a Mediator. Vol. 32.
Chaudhuri, Arjun and Morris B. Holbrook. 2001. “The Chain of Effects from Brand Trust and Brand Affect to Brand Performance: The Role of Brand Loyalty.” Journal of Marketing 65(2):81–93.
Chaudhuri, Arjun and Morris B. Holbrook. 2003. “The Chain of Effects from Brand Trust and Brand Affect to Brand Performance: The Role of Brand Loyalty.” Journal of Marketing 65(2):81–93.
Chen, Jun and Xiao Liang Shen. 2015. “Consumers’ Decisions in Social Commerce Context: An Empirical Investigation.” Decision Support Systems 79:55–64.
Chen, Lei and Ruimei Wang. 2016. “Trust Development and Transfer from Electronic Commerce to Social Commerce: An Empirical Investigation.” American Journal of Industrial and Business Management 06(05):568–76.
Chen, Xiayu, Qian Huang, Robert M. Davison, and Zhongsheng Hua. 2015. “What Drives Trust Transfer? The Moderating Roles of Seller-Specific and General Institutional Mechanisms.” International Journal of Electronic Commerce 20(2):261–89.
Cheung, Christy and Matthew K. O. Lee. 2000. “Association for Information Systems AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) Trust in Internet Shopping: A Proposed Model and Measurement Instrument Recommended Citation Trust in Internet Shopping: A Proposed Model and Measurement Instrument.”
Chin, Wynne W. 1998. “The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modeling.” Pp. 295–336 in Modern Methods for Business Research.
Chin, Wynne W. 2015. The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modeling.
Conger, Anthony J. 1974. “A Revised Definition for Suppressor Variables: A Guide To Their Identification and Interpretation.” Educational and Psychological Measurement 34(1):35–46.
Corbitt, Brian J., Theerasak Thanasankit, and Han Yi. 2003. “Trust and E-Commerce: A Study of Consumer Perceptions.” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 2(3):203–15.
Crespo, Á. Herrero, I. Rodriguez Del Bosque, and M. M. Garci. De Los Salmones Sanchez. 2009. “The Influence of Perceived Risk on Internet Shopping Behavior: A Multidimensional Perspective.” Journal of Risk Research 12(2):259–77.
Cronbach, Lee J. 1951. “Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests.” Psychometrika 16(3):297–334.
Dean, Dwane Hal. 1999. “Brand Endorsement, Popularity, and Event Sponsorship as Advertising Cues Affecting Consumer Pre-Purchase Attitudes.” Journal of Advertising 28(3):1–12.
Delgado-Ballester, Elena, Jose Luis Munuera-Alemán, and María Jesús Yagüe-Guillén. 2003. “Development and Validation of a Brand Trust Scale.” International Journal of Market Research 45(1):35–53.
Delgado-Márquez, Blanca L., Nuria E. Hurtado-Torres, and J. Alberto Aragón-Correa. 2012. “The Dynamic Nature of Trust Transfer: Measurement and the Influence of Reciprocity.” Decision Support Systems 54(1):226–34.
Doney, Patricia M. and Joseph P. Cannon. 2006. “An Examination of the Nature of Trust in Buyer-Seller Relationships.” Journal of Marketing 61(2):35.
Dowling, Grahame R. and Richard Staelin. 1994. “A Model of Perceived Risk and Intended Risk-Handling Activity.” Journal of Consumer Research 21(1):119.
Elliott, Richard and Natalia Yannopoulou. 2007. “The Nature of Trust in Brands: A Psychosocial Model.” European Journal of Marketing 41(9–10):988–98.
Farivar, S., Y. Yuan, and O. Turel. 2016. “Understanding Social Commerce Acceptance: The Role of Trust, Perceived Risk, and Benefit.” Twenty-Second Americas Conference on Information Systems 1–10.
Farivar, Samira, Ofir Turel, and Yufei Yuan. 2017. “A Trust-Risk Perspective on Social Commerce Use: An Examination of the Biasing Role of Habit.” Internet Research 27(3):586–607.
Featherman, Mauricio S. and Paul A. Pavlou. 2003. “Predicting E-Services Adoption: A Perceived Risk Facets Perspective.” International Journal of Human Computer Studies 59(4):451–74.
Featherman, Mauricio S. and John D. Wells. 2010. “The Intangibility of E-Services.” ACM SIGMIS Database 41(2):110.
Fornell, Claes and David F. Larcker. 1981. “Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error.” Journal of Marketing Research 18(1):39–50.
Froomkin, A. Michael. 1996. The Essential Role of Trusted Third Parties in Electronic Commerce.
Gallaugher, John M. 2002. “E-Commerce and the Undulating Distribution Channel.” Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CACM) 45(7):89–95.
Gefen, David, Elena Karahana, and Detmar W. Straub. 2003. “Trust and TAM in Online Shopping: An Integrated Model.” MIS Quarter 27(1):51–90.
Glover, Steven and Izak Benbasat. 2010. “A Comprehensive Model of Perceived Risk of E-Commerce Transactions.” International Journal of Electronic Commerce 15(2):47–78.
Grewal, Dhruv, Jerry Gotlieb, and Howard Marmorstein. 1994. “The Moderating Effects of Message Framing and Source Credibility on the Price-Perceived Risk Relationship.” Journal of Consumer Research 21(1):145.
Grover, Varun and James T. C. Teng. 2001. “E-Commerce and the Information Market.” Communications of the ACM 44(4):79–86.
Habibi, Mohammad Reza, Michel Laroche, and Marie Odile Richard. 2014. “The Roles of Brand Community and Community Engagement in Building Brand Trust on Social Media.” Computers in Human Behavior 37:152–61.
Hair, Joe F., Christian M. Ringle, and Marko Sarstedt. 2011. “PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet.” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 19(2):139–52.
Hair, Joseph F., William C. Black, Barry J. Babin, and Rolph E. Anderson. 2014. Multivariate Data Analysis.
Hayes, Andrew F. 2009. “Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical Mediation Analysis in the New Millennium.” Communication Monographs 76(4):408–20.
Hegner, Sabrina M. and Colin Jevons. 2016. “Brand Trust: A Cross-National Validation in Germany, India, and South Africa.” Journal of Product and Brand Management 25(1):58–68.
Hellofs, Linda L. and Robert Jacobson. 1999. “Market Share and Customers’ Perceptions of Quality: When Can Firms Grow Their Way to Higher versus Lower Quality?” Journal of Marketing 63(1):16–25.
Henseler, Jörg, Christian M. Ringle, and Marko Sarstedt. 2014. “A New Criterion for Assessing Discriminant Validity in Variance-Based Structural Equation Modeling.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 43(1):115–35.
Herbst, Kenneth C., Eli J. Finkel, David Allan, and Gráinne M. Fitzsimons. 2012. “On the Dangers of Pulling a Fast One: Advertisement Disclaimer Speed, Brand Trust, and Purchase Intention.” Journal of Consumer Research 38(5):909–19.
Hoffmann, A. O. I. and T. L. J. Broekhuizen. 2009. “Susceptibility to and Impact of Interpersonal Influence in an Investment Context.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 37(4):488–503.
Hong, Ilyoo B. and Hoon S. Cha. 2000. “The Mediating Role of Consumer Trust in an Online Merchant in Predicting Purchase Intention.” ICIS 2000 Proceedings 76.
Hong, Ilyoo B. and Hoon S. Cha. 2013. “The Mediating Role of Consumer Trust in an Online Merchant in Predicting Purchase Intention.” International Journal of Information Management 33(6):927–39.
Horst, Paul, Paul Wallin, Louis Guttman, Frieda Brim Wallin, John A. Clausen, Robert Reed, and Erich Rosenthal. 1941. The Prediction of Personal Adjustment: A Survey of Logical Problems and Research Techniques, with Illustrative Application to Problems of Vocational Selection, School Success, Marriage, and Crime. Social Science Research Council.
Hsieh, J.-K. and C. Y. Tseng. 2018. “Exploring Social Influence on Hedonic Buying of Digital Goods - OnliHsieh, J.-K., & Tseng, C.-Y. (2018). Exploring Social Influence on Hedonic Buying of Digital Goods - Online Games’ Virtual Items. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 19(2), 164–185.N.” Journal of Electronic Commerce Research 19(2):164–85.
Hsieh, Jung-Kuei and Ching-Yin Tseng. 2018. “The Social Influence on Hedonic Buying of Digital Goods Exploring Social Influence on Hedonic Buying of Digital Goods-Online Games’ Virtual Items.” Journal of Electronic Commerce Research 19(2):2018.
Hsu, Meng Hsiang, Li Wen Chuang, and Cheng Se Hsu. 2014. “Understanding Online Shopping Intention: The Roles of Four Types of Trust and Their Antecedents.” Internet Research 24(3):332–52.
Huang, Yu-An, Ian Phau, and Chad Lin. 2010. “Consumer Animosity, Economic Hardship, and Normative Influence: How Do They Affect Consumers’ Purchase Intention? Consumer Animosity, Economic Hardship, and Normative Influence How Do They Affect Consumers’ Purchase Intention?” European Journal of Marketing 44(7/8):909–37.
Jarvenpaa, Sirkka L., Noam Tractinsky, and Lauri Saarinen. 2006. “Consumer Trust in an Internet Store: A Cross-Cultural Validation.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 5(2):0–0.
Keil, Mark, Bernard C. Y. Tan, Kwok-Kee Wei, Timo Saarinen, Virpi Tuunainen, and Arjen Wassenaar. 2000. A Cross-Cultural Study on Escalation of Commitment Behavior in Software Projects. Vol. 24.
Kelman, Herbert C. 1958. “Compliance, Identification, and Internalization Three Processes of Attitude Change.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 2(1):51–60.
Kent, Robert J. and Chris T. Allen. 1994. “Competitive Interference Effects in Consumer Memory for Advertising: The Role of Brand Familiarity.” Journal of Marketing 58(3):97–105.
Kim, Chung Koo and Jay Young Chung. 1997. “Brand Popularity, Country Image and Market Share: An Empirical Study.” Journal of International Business Studies 28(2):361–86.
Kim, Dan J., Donald L. Ferrin, and H. Raghav Rao. 2009. “Trust and Satisfaction, Two Stepping Stones for Successful e-Commerce Relationships: A Longitudinal Exploration.” Information Systems Research 20(2):237–57.
Kim, Dan J., Donald L. Ferrin, and H. Raghav Rao. 2008. “A Trust-Based Consumer Decision-Making Model in Electronic Commerce: The Role of Trust, Perceived Risk, and Their Antecedents.” Decision Support Systems 44(2):544–64.
Kim, Dan, Raghav Rao, Bongsoon Cho, and Dan H. Jong Kim Bongsoon Cho Raghav Rao. 2000. “Effects of Consumer Lifestyles on Purchasing Behavior on the Internet: A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Validation.” Pp. 12–31 in Association for Information Systems AIS Electronic Library (AISeL).
Kim, Kyung Kyu and Bipin Prabhakar. 2000. “Initial Trust, Perceived Risk, and the Adoption of Internet Banking.” Icis 537–43.
Kim, Sanghyun and Hyunsun Park. 2013. “Effects of Various Characteristics of Social Commerce (s-Commerce) on Consumers’ Trust and Trust Performance.” International Journal of Information Management 33(2):318–32.
Kwak, Hyokjin, Richard J. Fox, and George M. Zinkhan. 2002. “What Products Can Be Successfully Promoted and Sold via the Internet?” Journal of Advertising Research 42(1):23–38.
Laroche, Michel, Mohammad Reza Habibi, Marie Odile Richard, and Ramesh Sankaranarayanan. 2012. “The Effects of Social Media Based Brand Communities on Brand Community Markers, Value Creation Practices, Brand Trust and Brand Loyalty.” Computers in Human Behavior 28(5):1755–67.
Lau, Geok Theng and Sook Han Lee. 1999. “Consumers’ Trust in a Brand and the Link to Brand Loyalty.” Journal of Market-Focused Management 4(4):341–70.
Lee, Dongwon, Jinsoo Park, Joong-Ho Ahn, and Joongho Ahn. 2001. “On the Explanation of Factors Affecting E-Commerce Adoption Recommended Citation.” Pp. 108–20 in Association for Information Systems AIS Electronic Library (AISeL). Vol. 14.
Lee, Kun Chang, Namho Chung, and Sangjae Lee. 2011. “Exploring the Influence of Personal Schema on Trust Transfer and Switching Costs in Brick-and-Click Bookstores.” Information and Management 48(8):364–70.
Liang, Ting-Peng, Yi-Ting Ho, Yu-Wen Li, and Efraim Turban. 2011. “What Drives Social Commerce: The Role of Social Support and Relationship Quality.” International Journal of Electronic Commerce 16(2):69–90.
Liang, Ting-Peng and Efraim Turban. 2011. “Introduction to the Special Issue Social Commerce: A Research Framework for Social Commerce.” International Journal of Electronic Commerce 16(2):5–14.
Lim, Nena. 2003. “Consumers’ Perceived Risk: Sources versus Consequences.” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 2(3):216–28.
Liu, Linlin, Matthew K. O. Lee, Renjing Liu, and Jiawen Chen. 2018. “Trust Transfer in Social Media Brand Communities: The Role of Consumer Engagement.” International Journal of Information Management 41(28):1–13.
Lu, Yaobin, Ling Zhao, and Bin Wang. 2010. “From Virtual Community Members to C2C E-Commerce Buyers: Trust in Virtual Communities and Its Effect on Consumers’ Purchase Intention.” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 9(4):346–60.
Mangold, W. Glynn and David J. Faulds. 2009. “Social Media: The New Hybrid Element of the Promotion Mix.” Business Horizons 52(4):357–65.
McKnight, D. Harrison, Vivek Choudhury, and Charles Kacmar. 2002. “Developing and Validating Trust Measures for E-Commerce: An Integrative Typology.” Information Systems Research 13(3):334–61.
Mitchell, Vincent‐Wayne. 1999. “Consumer Perceived Risk: Conceptualisations and Models.” European Journal of Marketing 33(1/2):163–95.
Morgan, Robert M. and Shelby D. Hunt. 1994. “The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing.” Journal of Marketing 58(3):20.
Ng, Celeste See Pui. 2013. “Intention to Purchase on Social Commerce Websites across Cultures: A Cross-Regional Study.” Information and Management 50(8):609–20.
Nidumolu, Sarma. 1995. “The Effect of Coordination and Uncertainty on Software Project Performance: Residual Performance Risk as an Intervening Variable.” Information Systems Research 6(3):191–219.
Pappas, Nikolaos. 2016. “Marketing Strategies, Perceived Risks, and Consumer Trust in Online Buying Behaviour.” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 29:92–103.
Paraschv, Corina and Sarah Spiekermann. 2002. “Motivating Human-Agent Interaction: Transferring Insights from Behavioral Marketing to Interface Design.” Electronic Commerce Research 2(3):255–85.
Pavlou, Paul A. 2012. “Consumer Acceptance E-Commerce.” International Journal of Electronic Commerce 7(3):101–34.
Pavlou, Paul A. and David Gefen. 2004. “Building Effective Online Marketplaces With.” Information System Research 15(1):37–59.
Pavlou, Paul A., Huigang Liang, and Yajiong Xue. 2007. “Understanding and Mitigating Uncertanity in Online Exchange Relationships.” MIS Ouarterly 31(1):105–36.
Pavlou, Paul a and David Gefen. 2004. “Building Effective Online Marketplaces Trust.” Information Systems Research 15(1):37–59.
Peter, J. Paul and Michael J. Ryan. 1976. “An Investigation of Perceived Risk at the Brand Level.” Journal of Marketing Research 13(2):184–88.
Podsakoff, Philip M., Scott B. MacKenzie, Jeong Yeon Lee, and Nathan P. Podsakoff. 2003. “Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies.” Journal of Applied Psychology 88(5):879–903.
Raijas, A. 2002. “The Consumer Benefits and Problems in the Electronic Grocery Store.” Journal of Retailing and Consumer 9:107–13.
Raijas, Anu. 2002. The Consumer Benefits and Problems in the Electronic Grocery Store. Vol. 9.
Ratnasingham, Pauline. 1999. “Trading Partner Trust in Electronic.” Unsure (Keen):544–52.
Samadi, Mansour and Ali Yaghoob-Nejadi. 2009. A Survey of the Effect of Consumers’ Perceived Risk on Purchase Intention in E-Shopping. Vol. 2. Semiannual Publication.
See-To, Eric W. K. and Kevin K. W. Ho. 2016. “A Study on the Impact of Design Attributes on E-Payment Service Utility.” Information and Management 53(5):668–81.
Sharma, Rajeev, Philip Yetton, and Crawford. 2009. “Estimating the Effect of Common Method Variance: The Method—Method Pair Technique with an Illustration from TAM Research.” MIS Ouarterly 33(3):473–90.
Sheth, Jagdish N., Banwari Mittal, and Bruce I. Newman. 1999. “Customer Behavior: Consumer Behavior and Beyond.” in Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Shi, Si and Wing S. Chow. 2015. “Trust Development and Transfer in Social Commerce: Prior Experience as Moderator.” Industrial Management and Data Systems 115(7):1182–1203.
Shin, Dong Hee. 2013. “User Experience in Social Commerce: In Friends We Trust.” Behaviour and Information Technology 32(1):52–67.
Shulman, Jeffrey D. and Xianjun Geng. 2019. “Does It Pay to Shroud In-App Purchase Prices?” Information Systems Research 30(3):856–71.
Stewart, Katherine J. 2003. “Trust Transfer on the World Wide Web.” Organization Science 14(1):5–17.
Stewart, Katherine J. 2006. “How Hypertext Links Influence Consumer Perceptions to Build and Degrade Trust Online.” Journal of Management Information Systems 23(1):183–210.
Stewart, Kj. 1999. “Transference as a Means of Building Trust in World Wide Web Sites.” Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on … (Festinger 1954):459–64.
Szymanski, David, Sundar Bharadwaj, and P. Rajan Varadarajan. 1993. “An Analysis of the Market Share-Profitability Relationship.” Journal of Marketing 57(3):1–18.
Taylor, James W. 1974. “The Role of Risk in Consumer Behavior.” Journal of Marketing 38(2):54–60.
Teh, Pei Lee and Pervaiz Khalid Ahmed. 2011. “MOA and TRA in Social Commerce: An Integrated Model.” IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management 1375–79.
Tung, Lai, Puay Tan, Pei Chia, Yeow Koh, and Hwee-Lee Yeo. 2001. “An Empirical Investigation of Virtual Communities and Trust Recommended Citation.” Pp. 307–320 in Association for Information Systems AIS Electronic Library (AISeL).
Volk, Fred, Anthony D. Miyazaki, and Ana Fernandez. 2001. “Consumer Perceptions of Privacy and Security Risks for Online Shopping.” Journal of Consumer Affairs 35(1):27–45.
Wang, and Zhang, Ping. 2012. “The Evolution of Social Commerce : The People , Business , Technology , and Information Dimensions Article in Communications of the Association for Information Systems · November 2012 and Information Dimensions.” Communications of the Association for Information Systems (November).
Wang, Jyun Cheng and Ching Hui Chang. 2013. “How Online Social Ties and Product-Related Risks Influence Purchase Intentions: A Facebook Experiment.” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 12(5):337–46.
Wang, Luzhuang, June Lu, and Linda A. Hayes. 2012. “How Do Technology Readiness, Platform Functionality and Trust Influence C2C User Satisfaction?” Journal of Electronic Commerce Research 13(1):50–69.
Wang, Nan, Xiao Liang Shen, and Y Sun. 2013. “Transition of Electronic Word-of-Mouth Services from Web to Mobile Context: A Trust Transfer Perspective.” Decision Support Systems 54(3):1394–1403.
Wang, Nan, Xiao Liang Shen, and Yongqiang Sun. 2013. “Transition of Electronic Word-of-Mouth Services from Web to Mobile Context: A Trust Transfer Perspective.” Decision Support Systems 54(3):1394–1403.
Wang, Ye Diana and Henry H. Emurian. 2005. “An Overview of Online Trust: Concepts, Elements, and Implications.” Computers in Human Behavior 21(1):105–25.
Williams, Larry J., Jeffrey R. Edwards, and Robert J. Vandenberg. 2003. “Recent Advances in Causal Modeling Methods for Organizational and Management Research.” Journal of Management 29(6):903–36.
Winterich, Karen Page and Gergana Y. Nenkov. 2015. “Save Like the Joneses: How Service Firms Can Utilize Deliberation and Informational Influence to Enhance Consumer Well-Being.” Journal of Service Research 18(3):384–404.
Wu, Jyh Jeng and Alex S. L. Tsang. 2008. “Factors Affecting Members’ Trust Belief and Behaviour Intention in Virtual Communities.” Behaviour and Information Technology 27(2):115–25.
Zucker, L. 1986. “Production of Trust: Institutional Sources of Economic Structure.” Research in Organizational Behavior 8:1840–1920.