Main Article Content

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic advent has put the spotlight back on debates about the relationship between urban planning and health-related issues, prompting a certain amount of research works worldwide. This study set out to build an analysis grid for this relationship on the basis of a literature review and apply it to the case study. To this end, our work used two levels of bibliographical analysis: the first level focused on review of research papers, which helped identify three topics related to the consequences of coronavirus disease and subsequent restrictive measures on urban uses, namely public open space, mobility, and online uses. Our study considers these latter because of their impacts on urban use and, by ricochet, on urban planning and design. The next level based exclusively on original articles review, allowed more in-depth investigations, to break down these topics into sub-topics, and to define criteria for analyzing them, which mainly include use patterns and behavioral changes and perceptions. Drawing from the insights revealed by these studies, the present article endeavors to examine the Algerian case with the aim of nourishing the debate on the resilience of cities to health crises and suggesting better guidance for urban planning and design measures.

Article Details

How to Cite
Naimi Ait-Aoudia, M., Khettab, S., & Boukratem, O. (2024). Urban Uses Put to The Test by The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Literature Review and Evidence from Algeria. Indonesian Journal of Social Science Research, 5(1), 61-83. https://doi.org/10.11594/ijssr.05.01.07

References

1. Abdullah, M., Dias, C., Muley, D., & Shahin, M. (2020). Exploring the impacts of COVID-19 on travel behavior and mode preferences. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TRIP.2020.100255
2. Ait Aissa, M., & Tebaa, F. (2022). The Shift to E-Learning during Covid-19 in Algeria: Case study of YouTube and ONEFD website for Baccalaureate students. Revue El-Tawassol, 28(01), 252–260.
3. Alsoud, A. R., & Ali Harasis, A. (2021). The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Student ’ s E-Learning Experience in Jordan. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 16(5), 1404–1414. https://doi.org/10.3390/jtaer16050079
4. Amoako, C., Adarkwa, K. K., & Poku-boansi, M. (2022). Effects of COVID-19 on Urban Mobility and Public Space Use in Kumasi, Ghana. In COVID-19 and a World of Ad Hoc Geographies (pp. 987–1007). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-94350-9_55
5. Aydin, N., Kuşakcı, A. O., & Deveci, M. (2022). The impacts of COVID-19 on travel behavior and initial perception of public transport measures in Istanbul. Decision Analytics Journal, 2(March), 100029. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dajour.2022.100029
6. Bachtarzi, R. M., Alkama, D., & Salah-Salah, H. (2021). Urban Public Space in The Context of a New Era, Case of Annaba City-Algeria. 681–684. https://doi.org/10.38027/iccaua2021199n3
7. Baig, F., Kirytopoulos, K., Lee, J., Tsamilis, E., Mao, R., & Ntzeremes, P. (2022). Changes in People’s Mobility Behavior in Greece after the COVID-19 Outbreak. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(6), 3567. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063567
8. Basu, R., & Ferreira, J. (2021). Sustainable mobility in auto-dominated Metro Boston: Challenges and opportunities post-COVID-19. Transport Policy, 103(March), 197–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.01.006
9. Beaudoin, M., Bergeron, P., Désilets, G., Emmanuelle, L. M., Robitaille, É., & St-Louis, A. (2020). COVID-19 : utilisation sécuritaire des parcs et des espaces verts urbains en contexte de déconfinement graduel. https://www.inspq.qc.ca/publications/3043-utilisation-parcs-espaces-verts-covid19
10. Beck, M. J., & Hensher, D. A. (2020). Insights into the impact of COVID-19 on household travel and activities in Australia – The early days of easing restrictions. Transport Policy, 99(December), 95–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2020.08.004
11. Benai, M., Guettafi, S., & Larab, S. (2021). The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on e-commerce in Algeria. Revue Des Sciences Administratives et Financiéres, 05(02), 560–573. https://doi.org/10.37644/1939-005-002-030
12. Benali, A. (2020). Covid-19 : Liste des 29 wilayas concernées par les mesures de circulation. ALGERIE ECO. https://www.algerie-eco.com/2020/07/10/covid-19-liste-des-29-wilayas-concernees-par-les-mesures-de-circulation/
13. Benghebrid, R., Guedjali, A., Lounici, N., Guernoub, H., & Fairouz, L. (2021). Le télétravail pendant la pandémie de la covid-19 en Algérie: état des lieux et perspectives de développement. https://www.cread.dz/les-series-covid/
14. Benghebrid, R., Guernoub, H., & Guedjali, A. (2022). Le management en télétravail en Algérie : effets et défis. Economic Researcher Review VOL10,NO, 10(2), 65–75. https://www.asjp.cerist.dz/en/article/210752
15. Benredjdal, A. (2020). La problématique du télétravail dans la legislation algérienne comme modèle moderne d’organisation du travail pendant la pandémie de COVID19. Les Cahiers Du Cread, 36(3), 581–608. https://doi.org/10.4314/cread.v36i3.
16. Bhatti, A., Akram, H., & Khan, A. U. (2020). E-commerce trends during COVID-19 Pandemic E-commerce trends during COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking, 13(2), 1449–1452. http://sersc.org/journals/index.php/IJFGCN/article/view/24523
17. Bingöl, H. B., & Terzi, F. (2022). The Effect of COVID-19 on Leisure Related Public Space Use in Turkey. Papers in Applied Geography, 8(4), 377–392. https://doi.org/10.1080/23754931.2022.2068156
18. Boussouf, A., & Belkaid, B. (2021). The Evolution of Electronic Payment in Algeria During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Finance & Markets Review, 08(02), 150–165. https://www.asjp.cerist.dz/en/article/163301
19. Boutebal, S. E., Madani, A., & Bryant, C. R. (2021). COVID-19 pandemic: rapid survey on social and mobility impact in Algerian cities. Journal of Public Health (Germany), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10389-020-01457-Y/TABLES/8
20. Buehler, R., & Pucher, J. (2021). COVID-19 Impacts on Cycling, 2019–2020. Transport Reviews ISSN:, 41(4), 393–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2021.1914900
21. Campisi, T., Basbas, S., Skoufas, A., Akgün, N., Ticali, D., & Tesoriere, G. (2020). The impact of covid-19 pandemic on the resilience of sustainable mobility in sicily. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(21), 8829. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12218829
22. Chanoune, N., & Boukrif, M. (2021). The effect of containment caused by the pandemic COVID-19 on the e- commerce sector in Algeria. Revue Algérienne d’Economie et Gestion, 15(02), 898–910. http://www.sante.gov.dz/13
23. CIB Web. (2023). GIE Web Marchand : Plateforme d’intégration de paiement électronique. https://www.cibweb.dz/fr/home
24. Comparili.net. (2023). Top 10 e-commerce Algérie : classement des meilleurs sites web de vente en ligne - Comparili.net. https://comparili.net/hub/top-ecommerce-algerie-classement-sites-vente/
25. Dalley, M. (2022). The 10 Best Travel Programs for Remote Workers. CareerAddict. https://www.careeraddict.com/work-remote-travel
26. Das, S., Boruah, A., Banerjee, A., Raoniar, R., Nama, S., & Maurya, A. K. (2021). Impact of COVID-19: A radical modal shift from public to private transport mode. Transport Policy, 109(August), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TRANPOL.2021.05.005
27. De La Barra, X. (2000). Fear of epidemics: The engine of urban planning. Planning Practice and Research, 15(1/2), 7–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/713691875
28. Djeffel, A. (2011). Ville et problématique urbaine en Algérie: constat et perspective. Annales Des Sciences Sociales et Humaines de l’Université de Guelma, 5(1), 45–53. https://www.asjp.cerist.dz/en/article/27929
29. Djekrif, F. Z., Bouyaya, L., & Chaib, R. (2022). Towards a Better Understanding of the Reasons for the Extensive Use of Private Cars: a Case Study in Skikda, Algeria. Transport Problems, 17(4), 103–114. https://doi.org/10.20858/TP.2022.17.4.09
30. Duhl, L., & Kristin-Sanchez, A. (1999). Healthy Cities and the City Planning Process. In World Health Organization. REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EUROPE. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/108252
31. Ehsani, J. P., Michael, J. P., Duren, M. L., Mui, Y., & Porter, K. M. P. (2021). Mobility Patterns Before, During, and Anticipated After the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Opportunity to Nurture Bicycling. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 60(6), e277–e279. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AMEPRE.2021.01.011
32. El Mestari, D., Mouloudji, S., Mohand-Amer, A., Mokeddem, K., Nouar, F., & Belegherras, A. (2020). Covid-19 en Algérie : enseignements et regards croisés (premiers éléments de reflexion). https://crasc.dz/index.php/fr/bulletins-et-rapports/covid-19-et-la-societé-premières-lectures/covid-19-en-algérie-enseignements-et-regards-croisés-premières-éléments-de-réflexion
33. Fezi, B. A. (2021). The Role of Architecture and Urbanism in Preventing Pandemics. In SARS-CoV-2 Origin and COVID-19 Pandemic Across the Globe (pp. 273–292). https://doi.org/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.98294
34. Geng, D. (Christina), Innes, J., Wu, W., & Wang, G. (2021). Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on urban park visitation: a global analysis. Journal of Forestry Research, 32(2), 553–567. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11676-020-01249-W
35. Glavan, O. L., Nikolić, N., Folić, B., Vitošević, B., Mitrović, A., & Kosanović, S. (2022). COVID-19 and City Space: Impact and Perspectives. Sustainability, 14(1885), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.3390/SU14031885

36. Greenpeace. (2020). Manifesto for a green recovery. https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/sustainability/our-insights/addressing-climate-change-in-a-post-pandemic-world
37. Grynyuk, S., Kovtun, O., Sultanova, L., Zheludenko, M., Zasluzhena, A., & Zaytseva, I. (2022). Distance Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Experience of Ukraine’s Higher Education System. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 20(3), 242–256. https://doi.org/10.34190/ejel.20.3.2198
38. Gustin, M. (2022). L’abonnement MAX ACTIF : mode d’emploi - SNCF Connect. Sncfconnect. https://www.sncf-connect.com/article/mon-forfait-annuel-teletravail
39. Gutiérrez, A., Miravet, D., & Domènech, A. (2021). COVID-19 and urban public transport services: emerging challenges and research agenda. Cities and Health, 5(sup1), S177–S180. https://doi.org/10.1080/23748834.2020.1804291
40. Hamidi, S., & Zandiatashbar, A. (2021). Compact development and adherence to stay-at-home order during the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal investigation in the United States. Landscape and Urban Planning, 205. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.LANDURBPLAN.2020.103952
41. Hamza, S. (2022). Automobile : le marché algérien s’enfonce dans une crise endémique. Algérie Expat A-E. https://www.algerie-expat.com/actualite/automobile-le-marche-algerien-senfonce-dans-une-crise-endemique/10248/
42. Heywood, V. H. (2017). The nature and composition of urban plant diversity in the Mediterranean*. Flora Mediterranea, 27(October), 195–220. https://doi.org/10.7320/FlMedit27.195
43. Honey-Rosés, J., Anguelovski, I., Chireh, V. K., Daher, C., Konijnendijk van den Bosch, C., Litt, J. S., Mawani, V., McCall, M. K., Orellana, A., Oscilowicz, E., Sánchez, U., Senbel, M., Tan, X., Villagomez, E., Zapata, O., & Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on public space: an early review of the emerging questions-design, perceptions and inequities. Cities & Health, 5(sup1), S263–S279. https://doi.org/10.1080/23748834.2020.1780074
44. Hu, S., & Chen, P. (2021). Who left riding transit? Examining socioeconomic disparities in the impact of COVID-19 on ridership. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 90(January), 102654. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TRD.2020.102654
45. Idres, L., Lassassi, M., Djani, F., & Yousfi-halimi, N. (2020). Algerian perception on COVID-19 and its impact on post lockdown mobility: a survey study. Les Cahiers Du Cread, 36(3), 285–318. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/cread/article/view/202204
46. Jachnow, A. (2020). What will be the Post-Pandemic Urban Path? URBAET. https://www.urbanet.info/the-post-pandemic-urban-path/
47. Kawasaki, T., Wakashima, H., & Shibasaki, R. (2022). The use of e-commerce and the COVID-19 outbreak: A panel data analysis in Japan. Transport Policy, 115(January), 88–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.10.023
48. Khan, M. A., Vivek, Nabi, M. K., Khojah, M., & Tahir, M. (2021). Students’ perception towards e-learning during covid-19 pandemic in India: An empirical study. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(1), 57. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010057
49. Korpilo, S., Kajosaari, A., Rinne, T., Hasanzadeh, K., Raymond, C. M., & Kyttä, M. (2021). Coping With Crisis: Green Space Use in Helsinki Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, 3(September), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3389/frsc.2021.713977
50. Larcher, F., Pomatto, E., Battisti, L., Gullino, P., & Devecchi, M. (2021). Perceptions of urban green areas during the social distancing period for covid-19 containment in Italy. Horticulturae, 7(55), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7030055
51. Layachi, A., & Schuelka, M. J. (2022). The Impact of the COVID-19 Related School Closure on the Mental Health and Well-Being of Children with SEN and Their Parents in Algeria. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/1034912X.2022.2092080
52. Li, L., Li, X., Niu, N., & He, J. (2023). Uneven impacts of COVID-19 on residents’ utilization of urban parks: A case study of Guangzhou, China. Applied Geography, 153(April), 102905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2023.102905
53. Lilley, K. D. (2015). Urban planning after the Black Death: Townscape transformation in later medieval England (1350-1530). Urban History, 42(1), 22–42. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0963926814000492
54. Lotfata, A., Gemci, A. G., & Ferah, B. (2022). The changing context of walking behavior: coping with the COVID-19 Pandemic in urban neighborhoods. Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, 16(3), 495–516. https://doi.org/10.1108/ARCH-09-2021-0240
55. Louifi, L. (2023). Enseignement supérieur : La plate-forme « Moodle » généralisée – Le Jeune Indépendant. Le Jeune Indépendant. https://www.jeune-independant.net/enseignement-superieur-la-plate-forme-moodle-generalisee/
56. Madene, N. (2021). L’intégration du e -learning aux Universités Algériennes : Réalisations et Contraintes. Al Bashaer Economic Journal, VII(02), 941–954. https://www.asjp.cerist.dz/en/downArticle/196/7/2/161135
57. Marconi, P. L., Perelman, P. E., & Salgado, V. G. (2022). Green in times of COVID-19: urban green space relevance during the COVID-19 pandemic in Buenos Aires City. Urban Ecosystems, 25(3), 941–953. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-022-01204-z
58. Mebarki, N. (2023). Télétravail en période de crise sanitaire : Etat des lieux de quelques entreprises Algériennes. Les Cahiers Du Cread, 39(1), 157–184. https://doi.org/10.4314/cread.v39i1.6
59. Megahed, N. A., & Ghoneim, E. M. (2020). Antivirus-built environment: Lessons learned from Covid-19 pandemic. Sustainable Cities and Society, 61. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SCS.2020.102350
60. Melis, B., Lara Hernandez, J. A., Khemri, Y. M., & Melis, A. (2020). Shifting the Threshold of Public Space in UK, Algeria and Mexico during the COVID-19 Pandemic. The Journal of Public Space, 5(3), 159–172. https://doi.org/10.32891/jps.v5i3.1387
61. Mensah, C. A. (2014). Urban Green Spaces in Africa: Nature and Challenges. International Journal of Ecosystem, 4(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ije.20140401.01
62. MESRS. (2022). Rapport sur la situation de l’enseignement supérieur. https://whec2022.net/resources/Country report - Algeria.pdf
63. Messaoudene, A., & Belmahi, M. (2020). Social Distancing and Its Effect on Social Connectedness in the Algerian Society. The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, 7(05), 5958–5968. https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsshi/v7i05.04
64. Mili, M., Boutabba, H., & Boutabba, S. D. (2019). Urban nature: Quantitative and qualitative degradation of urban green spaces, case of the steppe city of M’sila, Algeria. Urbe. Revista Brasileira de Gestão Urbana, 11, e20180138. https://doi.org/10.1590/2175-3369.011.e20180138
65. Mouratidis, K. (2021). How COVID-19 reshaped quality of life in cities: A synthesis and implications for urban planning. Land Use Policy, 111(December), 105772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2021.105772
66. Nasri, R. (2020). Transports interwilayas: Tous les moyens sont bons ! – Algeria-Watch. Algeria-Watch. https://algeria-watch.org/?p=74604
67. Noszczyk, T., Gorzelany, J., Kukulska-Kozieł, A., & Hernik, J. (2022). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the importance of urban green spaces to the public. Land Use Policy, 113(February), 105925. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2021.105925
68. Observatoire-Pharos. (2020). L’impact du Covid-19 sur les manifestations et rites musulmans en Algérie – Observatoire Pharos. https://www.observatoirepharos.com/pays/algerie/limpact-du-covid-19-sur-les-manifestations-et-rites-musulmans-en-algerie/
69. ONS. (2020). Les principaux indicateurs du secteur de l’éducation nationale (Issue 915, p. 20). https://doi.org/10.3917/rindu1.214.0089
70. Otchere-Darko, W. (2021). COVID-19, spatio-epidemiology and urban planning. Town Planning Review, 92(2), 209–213. https://doi.org/10.3828/TPR.2020.64/ASSET/49F6D48C-11CD-47FD-BEB9-F5C5A9DBA3C3/ASSETS/TPR.2020.64.FP.PNG
71. Ouchichi, M., & Bouguenoune, H. (2021). Economic Crisis and Covid-19 in Algeria : An institutional analysis (Issue April). https://en.issra-dz.org/crise-economique-et-covid-19-en-algerie-une-gestion-revelatrice-de-la-fragilite-institutionnelle/
72. Ouzir, M., Khalfallah, B., Dehimi, S., & aKdi Ahmed, A. (2021). Quantitative and qualitative assessment of urban green spaces in Boussaada City, Algeria using remote sensing techniques. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 14(3), 123–133. https://doi.org/10.5897/JGRP2021.0831
73. Patrick, S. W., Henkhaus, L. E., Zickafoose, J. S., Lovell, K., Halvorson, A., Loch, S., Letterie, M., & Davis, M. M. (2020). Well-being of Parents and Children During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A National Survey. Pediatrics, 146(4), e2020016824. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-016824
74. Przybylowski, A., Stelmak, S., & Suchanek, M. (2021). Mobility behaviour in view of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic-public transport users in gdansk case study. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(1), 364. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010364
75. Rachedi, A. (2022). Le télétravail en période de la pandémie de la Covid-19. La Revue Des Sciences de Gestion, 3(315–316), 81–89. https://www.cairn.info/revue-des-sciences-de-gestion-2022-3-page-81.htm
76. Ramanath Jha. (2021). Reimagining Central Business Districts. Observer Research Foundation, 502, 15. https://www.orfonline.org/research/reimagining-central-business-districts/
77. Rannard, G. (2020). Coronavirus: challenge of reshaping UK cities after lockdown. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-52524807
78. Rice, W. L., & Pan, B. (2021). Understanding changes in park visitation during the COVID-19 pandemic: A spatial application of big data. Wellbeing, Space and Society, 2(February), 100037. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wss.2021.100037
79. Rogowska, A. M., Kuśnierz, C., & Bokszczanin, A. (2020). Examining Anxiety, Life Satisfaction, General Health, Stress and Coping Styles During COVID-19 Pandemic in Polish Sample of University Students. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 13, 797–811. https://doi.org/10.2147/prbm.s266511
80. Salmani, N., Bagheri, I., & Dadgari, A. (2022). Iranian nursing students experiences regarding the status of e-learning during COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS ONE, 17(2), e0263388. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263388
81. Schaefer, K. J., Tuitjer, L., & Levin-Keitel, M. (2021). Transport disrupted – Substituting public transport by bike or car under Covid 19. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 153(September), 202–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2021.09.002
82. Shamshiripour, A., Rahimi, E., Shabanpour, R., & Mohammadian, A. (Kouros). (2020). How is COVID-19 reshaping activity-travel behavior? Evidence from a comprehensive survey in Chicago. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 7(September), 100216. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TRIP.2020.100216
83. Sharifi, A., & Khavarian-Garmsir, A. R. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic: Impacts on cities and major lessons for urban planning, design, and management. Science of the Total Environment, 749(December), 142391. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SCITOTENV.2020.142391
84. Sogbe, E. (2021). The evolving impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on public transportation in Ghana. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 9(4), 1607–1614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cstp.2021.08.010
85. Souiah, S., Nourine, R., & Bakhti, N. (2022). Le transport collectif dans la deuxième grande ville algérienne ( Oran ) : avant , pendant la pandémie de la Covid-19 et perspectives en situation de déconfinement. In Les ouvrages du CRASC : SOCIÉTÉ(S) ET PANDÉMIE (Issue 2, pp. 173–187). CRASC. https://ouvrages.crasc.dz/index.php/fr/les-ouvrages/1196-société-s-et-pandémie
86. Steckler, B., & Swift, T. (2020). How are communities reallocating the street right-of-way to safely accommodate recreational and social activities during the COVID-19 pandemic? COVID Mobility Works. https://www.covidmobilityworks.org/insights/how-are-communities-reallocating-the-street-right-of-way-to-safely-accommodate-recreational-and-social-activities-during-the-covid-19-pandemic
87. Steuteville, R. (2020). Cities converting streets to public space in coronavirus crisis | CNU. A CNU Journal. https://www.cnu.org/publicsquare/2020/05/19/cities-converting-streets-public-space-coronavirus-crisis
88. Turnbull, D., Chugh, R., & Luck, J. (2021). Transitioning to E-Learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: How have Higher Education Institutions responded to the challenge? Education and Information Technologies, 26(5), 6401–6419. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10633-w
89. Ugolini, F., Massetti, L., Calaza-Martínez, P., Cariñanos, P., Dobbs, C., Ostoic, S. K., Marin, A. M., Pearlmutter, D., Saaroni, H., Šaulienė, I., Simoneti, M., Verlič, A., Vuletić, D., & Sanesi, G. (2020). Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use and perceptions of urban green space: An international exploratory study. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 56(December), 126888. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.UFUG.2020.126888
90. van den Berg, R. (2020). How Will COVID-19 Affect Urban Planning? |. TheCityFix. https://thecityfix.com/blog/will-covid-19-affect-urban-planning-rogier-van-den-berg/
91. Van Nieuwerburgh, S. (2023). The remote work revolution: Impact on real estate values and the urban environment: 2023 AREUEA Presidential Address. Real Estate Economics, 51(1), 7–48. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6229.12422
92. Venter, Z. S., Barton, D. N., Gundersen, V., Figari, H., & Nowell, M. S. (2021). Back to nature: Norwegians sustain increased recreational use of urban green space months after the COVID-19 outbreak. Landscape and Urban Planning, 214(October), 104175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2021.104175
93. Vereycken, Y., Lenaerts, K., Meylemans, L., Naedenoen, F., & Bernard, S. (2020). La digitalisation des services publics belges: L’impact sur la prestation de services, le travail et la stratégie syndicale. https://www.lacsc.be/csc-services-publics-congres-2021/documentation-et-contenu
94. Wolch, J. R., Byrne, J., & Newell, J. P. (2014). Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: The challenge of making cities “just green enough.” Landscape and Urban Planning, 125(May), 234–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.01.017
95. World Bank. (2023). Cities Key to Solving Climate Crisis. World Bank. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2023/05/18/cities-key-to-solving-climate-crisis
96. World Health Organization WHO. (2023). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). World Health Organization WHO. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019?adgroupsurvey=%7Badgroupsurvey%7D&gclid=Cj0KCQjw7uSkBhDGARIsAMCZNJuEfTUsQcC4pP1PuUgzzrbpQ36PBwERNJ1uiVqjyUPC3dr-ZU8vpgoaAknHEALw_wcB
97. Xie, J., Luo, S., Furuya, K., & Sun, D. (2020). Urban parks as green buffers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(17), 6751. https://doi.org/10.3390/SU12176751
98. Zeb, S., Hussain, S. S., & Javed, A. (2021). COVID-19 and a way forward for restaurants and street food vendors. Cogent Business and Management, 8(1), 1923359. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2021.1923359
99. Zermane, H., & Aitouche, S. (2020). Digital Learning with Covid-19 in Algeria. Int. J. of 3D Printing Tech. Dig. Ind, 4(2), 161–170. https://doi.org/10.46519/ij3dptdi.776978
100. Zigh, E., Abdalli, R. H., & Kouninef, B. (2022). Impact of E-Learning on INTTIC Students during the COVID-19 Ehlem. Journal of Education and E-Learning Research, 9(1), 28–37. https://doi.org/10.20448/jeelr.v9i1.3738